En busca de asilo, la obra de Juan Rodulfo

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En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo
En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo

En busca de asilo, la obra de Juan Rodulfo

Por Rafael Prieto, Que Pasa mi Gente

Charlotte.- El venezolano afincado en Charlotte, Juan Rodulfo es una caja de sorpresas. En este mes no solo ha publicado un libro sino dos  y en dos idiomas y se ríe con desparpajo.
Se define simplemente como el hijo de Eladio Rodulfo y Briceida Moya, hermano de Gabriela, Gustavo y Katiuska, padre de Gabriel y Sofía, pero su autodescripción encarna el orgullo de ser margariteño, una bella y envidiable isla y de tener conocimientos de chino.
“En Busca de Asilo” una de sus dos obras, que tiene 154 páginas ofrece una definición del tema, un resumen histórico del asilo, incluyendo la edad media y el moderno asilo político.
El libro se refiere al asilo en Estados Unidos, las caravanas, los centros de detención y las cortes de inmigración.
Trata las muertes de los buscadores de asilo de África y el Medio Oriente en el mar Mediterráneo.
Incluso alcanza a mencionar a olvidados como los rohingya en Birmania, musulmanes desterrados, en una zona dominada por los budistas.
Pero la mayor parte del libro la dedica a Venezuela su tierra, de moda en las noticias.
Algo de lo que Rodulfo dice en su obra es “El Humano es la única especie en la Tierra, que caza, tortura y mata a sus iguales por placer”.

Leer el Articulo Completo… CLICK AQUI

En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo

En busca de asilo, la obra de Juan Rodulfo

Posted:
En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo
En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo

En busca de asilo, la obra de Juan Rodulfo

Por Rafael Prieto, Que Pasa mi Gente

Charlotte.- El venezolano afincado en Charlotte, Juan Rodulfo es una caja de sorpresas. En este mes no solo ha publicado un libro sino dos  y en dos idiomas y se ríe con desparpajo.
Se define simplemente como el hijo de Eladio Rodulfo y Briceida Moya, hermano de Gabriela, Gustavo y Katiuska, padre de Gabriel y Sofía, pero su autodescripción encarna el orgullo de ser margariteño, una bella y envidiable isla y de tener conocimientos de chino.
“En Busca de Asilo” una de sus dos obras, que tiene 154 páginas ofrece una definición del tema, un resumen histórico del asilo, incluyendo la edad media y el moderno asilo político.
El libro se refiere al asilo en Estados Unidos, las caravanas, los centros de detención y las cortes de inmigración.
Trata las muertes de los buscadores de asilo de África y el Medio Oriente en el mar Mediterráneo.
Incluso alcanza a mencionar a olvidados como los rohingya en Birmania, musulmanes desterrados, en una zona dominada por los budistas.
Pero la mayor parte del libro la dedica a Venezuela su tierra, de moda en las noticias.
Algo de lo que Rodulfo dice en su obra es “El Humano es la única especie en la Tierra, que caza, tortura y mata a sus iguales por placer”.

Leer el Articulo Completo… CLICK AQUI

En Busca de Asilo por Juan Rodulfo

La Guerra del Dictador Hugo Chavez: Contra Comunicadores Sociales y Medios en el 2005

Posted:
La Guerra de Chavez 2005

La Guerra del Dictador Hugo Chavez: Contra Comunicadores Sociales y Medios en el 2005 (Paperback)

Eladio Rodulfo Gonzalez, Periodista Venezolano, publica una Investigación contentiva de varios tomos, donde recopila las Agresiones, Violaciones de Derechos Humanos y Asesinato de Comunicadores Sociales en el Ejercicio de su Profesión, por parte de los Gobiernos Dictatoriales de Hugo Chávez y Nicolás Maduro, aqui comparto el Segundo Tomo:

Introducción:

Hasta octubre de ese año hubo 71 ataques a los medios y 27 agresiones a periodistas. La dictadura se hizo de otras emisoras radiales de particulares para consolidar su hegemonía comunicacional.El dictador no sólo agredió verbalmente a los medios independientes venezolanos sino también de otros países.Para él, el periodismo independiente es oligarca y para el presidente de Venezolana de Televisión, enemigo.La reforma del Código Penal y la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión incrementaron la censura y la autocensura.A varios periodistas se les abrió juicio en los tribunales.El Seniat y la Conatel se ensañaron contra los medios impresos y televisivos.Venezuela pasó a ser el país de mayor censura en el mundo.Las organizaciones internacionales como la SIP y la AIR mostraron su preocupación por la ausencia de libertad de prensa y expresión en el país.Fueron constantes las intimidaciones y hostigamientos contra los comunicadores sociales y medios.

La Guerra de Chavez 2005
Venezuela Donacion

La Guerra del Dictador Hugo Chavez: Contra Comunicadores Sociales y Medios en el 2005

Posted:
La Guerra de Chavez 2005

La Guerra del Dictador Hugo Chavez: Contra Comunicadores Sociales y Medios en el 2005 (Paperback)

Eladio Rodulfo Gonzalez, Periodista Venezolano, publica una Investigación contentiva de varios tomos, donde recopila las Agresiones, Violaciones de Derechos Humanos y Asesinato de Comunicadores Sociales en el Ejercicio de su Profesión, por parte de los Gobiernos Dictatoriales de Hugo Chávez y Nicolás Maduro, aqui comparto el Segundo Tomo:

Introducción:

Hasta octubre de ese año hubo 71 ataques a los medios y 27 agresiones a periodistas. La dictadura se hizo de otras emisoras radiales de particulares para consolidar su hegemonía comunicacional.El dictador no sólo agredió verbalmente a los medios independientes venezolanos sino también de otros países.Para él, el periodismo independiente es oligarca y para el presidente de Venezolana de Televisión, enemigo.La reforma del Código Penal y la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión incrementaron la censura y la autocensura.A varios periodistas se les abrió juicio en los tribunales.El Seniat y la Conatel se ensañaron contra los medios impresos y televisivos.Venezuela pasó a ser el país de mayor censura en el mundo.Las organizaciones internacionales como la SIP y la AIR mostraron su preocupación por la ausencia de libertad de prensa y expresión en el país.Fueron constantes las intimidaciones y hostigamientos contra los comunicadores sociales y medios.

La Guerra de Chavez 2005
Venezuela Donacion

The World Still Doesn't Have Enough Places to Plug In Cars - Bloomberg

Posted:

The World Still Doesn't Have Enough Places to Plug In Cars - Bloomberg

Posted:

Cars are driving us into recession - Business Insider

Posted:

LONDON — More than 7 million Americans have gone into “serious delinquency” on their car loans, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and that is one of the reasons the US Fed has become more cautious about raising interest rates.

In fact, the automobile industries of the US and Europe have — for different reasons — started to show symptoms of something serious happening in the underlying Western economies. Europe is flirting with recession, and many people here have simply stopped buying cars. In America, danger signals from auto-loan debt suggest US consumers don’t feel as though they’re enjoying the best of times.

Both factors suggest many consumers feel their finances are no longer robust enough to handle big-ticket purchases.

Read more: The shock surge in US car-loan delinquencies gives a clue why the Fed is treading carefully, even in a booming economy

First, in the US, an increasing number of Americans have apparently become too poor to continue paying for the cars they drive. Ninety-day past-due delinquencies among 18- to 29-year-olds are already at the same level they were in 2008, during the financial crisis:

New York Fed

Now look at what has happened in the eurozone, the 19 European countries that use the euro currency:

Capital Economics

What is happening in Europe is complicated and not directly correlated to auto-loan debt. But it’s having the same effect: People have reduced car-buying by as much as 10%, and that’s threatening to tip Europe into recession.

In Germany — the world’s fourth-largest economy and Europe’s driving manufacturing force — new-car buying fell off a cliff in the past few months.

UBS

Economists have more recently been cheered by an uptick in sales, but they are still rising from a steep trough and are well below the level they were at a year ago:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Disastrous auto sales are one of the major factors in hurting the German economy, which went into a technical recession in the third quarter of 2018 and appears to have stagnated, with exactly 0.0% growth, in Q4 2018:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Britain has problems too. This shows new-car registrations in the UK:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Since 2017, British consumers seem to have permanently shaved about 10 percentage points off their demand for new cars.

The German and British car markets are closely linked. Unsurprisingly, Brexit — especially if Britain leaves the European Union with no trade deal — will hurt both of them. Oxford Economics estimated that “no deal” would cut 0.3 percentage points from Europe’s manufacturing economy but up to 0.7 points from the car industries.

“Particularly vulnerable would be the German and Spanish industries, with output falling 0.6 ppt and 0.8 ppt below baseline over the same period,” the Oxford analyst Stephen Foreman told clients recently.

Oxford Economics

A variety of factors are affecting car-buying in Europe. The fake-diesel-testing scandal has deterred people from buying new diesel models. Makers have had to retool their plants to cope with new so-called WLTP regulations designed to improve emissions and fuel-consumption standards, and that has reduced production. There is some anecdotal evidence that the popularity of ride-hailing apps like Uber has reduced people’s desire to replace their private cars. And in Britain, a change in vehicle tax ramped up sales in 2017, thus depressing them afterwards.

But all that, coupled with the US delinquent-debt problem, has had tangible macro results:

Cars are driving us into recession - Business Insider

Posted:

LONDON — More than 7 million Americans have gone into “serious delinquency” on their car loans, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and that is one of the reasons the US Fed has become more cautious about raising interest rates.

In fact, the automobile industries of the US and Europe have — for different reasons — started to show symptoms of something serious happening in the underlying Western economies. Europe is flirting with recession, and many people here have simply stopped buying cars. In America, danger signals from auto-loan debt suggest US consumers don’t feel as though they’re enjoying the best of times.

Both factors suggest many consumers feel their finances are no longer robust enough to handle big-ticket purchases.

Read more: The shock surge in US car-loan delinquencies gives a clue why the Fed is treading carefully, even in a booming economy

First, in the US, an increasing number of Americans have apparently become too poor to continue paying for the cars they drive. Ninety-day past-due delinquencies among 18- to 29-year-olds are already at the same level they were in 2008, during the financial crisis:

New York Fed

Now look at what has happened in the eurozone, the 19 European countries that use the euro currency:

Capital Economics

What is happening in Europe is complicated and not directly correlated to auto-loan debt. But it’s having the same effect: People have reduced car-buying by as much as 10%, and that’s threatening to tip Europe into recession.

In Germany — the world’s fourth-largest economy and Europe’s driving manufacturing force — new-car buying fell off a cliff in the past few months.

UBS

Economists have more recently been cheered by an uptick in sales, but they are still rising from a steep trough and are well below the level they were at a year ago:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Disastrous auto sales are one of the major factors in hurting the German economy, which went into a technical recession in the third quarter of 2018 and appears to have stagnated, with exactly 0.0% growth, in Q4 2018:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Britain has problems too. This shows new-car registrations in the UK:

Pantheon Macroeconomics

Since 2017, British consumers seem to have permanently shaved about 10 percentage points off their demand for new cars.

The German and British car markets are closely linked. Unsurprisingly, Brexit — especially if Britain leaves the European Union with no trade deal — will hurt both of them. Oxford Economics estimated that “no deal” would cut 0.3 percentage points from Europe’s manufacturing economy but up to 0.7 points from the car industries.

“Particularly vulnerable would be the German and Spanish industries, with output falling 0.6 ppt and 0.8 ppt below baseline over the same period,” the Oxford analyst Stephen Foreman told clients recently.

Oxford Economics

A variety of factors are affecting car-buying in Europe. The fake-diesel-testing scandal has deterred people from buying new diesel models. Makers have had to retool their plants to cope with new so-called WLTP regulations designed to improve emissions and fuel-consumption standards, and that has reduced production. There is some anecdotal evidence that the popularity of ride-hailing apps like Uber has reduced people’s desire to replace their private cars. And in Britain, a change in vehicle tax ramped up sales in 2017, thus depressing them afterwards.

But all that, coupled with the US delinquent-debt problem, has had tangible macro results:

Types of Motor Oil - How To Pick The Right Engine Oil - Popular Mechanics

Posted:

Given all the motor oil options out there, choosing the right oil for your car might seem like an impossibly daunting task. While there is a mountain of info to learn about the various oil choices, the first step is honestly quite simple: Look in the manual.

Your car’s owner’s manual will list the recommended oil weight, whether that’s a standard like 10W-30 or something more unusual. Later on, we’ll explain what that weight means and how you should adjust it based on the seasons. But for now, choose an oil with the recommended weight from a brand that displays the starburst symbol that indicates the oil has been tested by the American Petroleum Institute (API). In addition, there’s a two-character service designation on the container. API’s latest service standard is “SL.” SL refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of high-temperature deposits.

Next, you need to choose the viscosity (thickness) that’s suitable for the temperatures your vehicle normally operates in (again, check your owners manual).

Those are the basics. But there’s a whole lot more to the story than that.

Understand the Labels

image
Motor oil labels.

SAE

These are the labels you’ll find on every container of reputable motor oil. The API donut on the right tells you if the oil meets the current SL service rating (C for diesel engines). It also provides the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity number and tells you if the oil has passed the Energy Conserving test. The starburst symbol on the left indicates that the oil has passed the tests listed for SL service.

Viscosity

Viscosity means a fluid’s resistance to flow. In motor oil, it’s rated at zero degrees Fahrenheit (represented by the number preceding the “W” [for winter]) and at 212 degrees (represented by the second number in the viscosity designation). Motor oil thins as it heats and thickens as it cools. So, with the right additives to help it resist thinning too much, an oil can be rated for one viscosity when cold, another when hot. The more resistant it is to thinning, the higher the second number (10W-40 versus 10W-30, for example), and that’s good. Within reason, thicker oil generally seals better and maintains a better film of lubrication between moving parts.

At the low-temperature end, oil has to be resistant to thickening so that it flows more easily to all the moving parts in your engine. Also, if the oil is too thick, the engine requires more energy to turn the crankshaft, which is partly submerged in a bath of oil. Excessive thickness can make it harder to start the engine, which reduces fuel economy. A 5W oil is typically what’s recommended for winter use. However, synthetic oils can be formulated to flow even more easily when cold, so they are able to pass tests that meet the 0W rating.

Once the engine is running, the oil heats up. The second number in the viscosity rating—the “40” in 10W-40, for example—tells you that the oil will stay thicker at high temperatures than one with a lower second number—the “30” in 10W-30, for example. What’s really important is that you use the oil viscosity your car’s owner’s manual recommends.

Why So Many Oils?

mobile 1 motor oil

Mike Mozart – Flickr CC

Look on the shelves in auto parts stores and you’ll see oils labeled for all kinds of specific purposes: high-tech engines, new cars, higher-mileage vehicles, heavy-duty/off-road SUVs. In addition, you’ll see a wide selection of viscosities. If you read your owner’s manual, you’ll know what the car manufacturer recommends for a brand-new vehicle. The manual may include a reference to Energy Conserving oils, which simply means that the oil has passed a lab test against a reference oil. It’s no guarantee of better fuel economy, but most of the leading brands have at least some viscosities that are so labeled. Let’s take a look at the different types.

How to Choose Between Synthetic and Conventional Motor Oil

Premium Conventional Oil: This is the standard new-car oil. All leading brands have one for service level SL, available in several viscosities. The carmakers usually specify a 5W-20 or 5W-30 oil, particularly for lower temperatures, with a 10W-30 oil as optional, particularly for higher ambient temperatures. These three ratings cover just about every light-duty vehicle on the road. Even more important, though, is changing the oil and filter regularly. A 4000 miles/four months interval is good practice. The absolute minimum is twice a year. If your car has an electronic oil-change indicator on the instrument cluster, don’t exceed its warning.

Full Synthetic Oil: The oils made for high-tech engines, whether in a Chevy Corvette or Mercedes-Benz, are full of synthetics. If these oils pass stringent special tests (indicated by their labeling), it means they have superior, longer-lasting performance in all the critical areas, from viscosity index to protection against deposits. They flow better at low temperatures and maintain peak lubricity at high temperatures. So why shouldn’t everyone use them? Answer: These oils are expensive and not every engine needs them. In fact, there may be some features that your car’s engine needs that the synthetics don’t have. Again, follow your owner’s manual.

Synthetic Blend Oil: These have a dose of synthetic oil mixed with organic oil, and overall are formulated to provide protection for somewhat heavier loads and high temperatures. This generally means they’re less volatile, so they evaporate far less, which reduces oil loss (and increases fuel economy). They’re popular with drivers of pickups/SUVs who want the high-load protection. And they’re a lot less expensive than full synthetics, maybe just pennies more than a premium conventional oil.

Higher-Mileage Oil: Today’s vehicles last longer, and if you like the idea of paying off the car and running the mileage well into six figures, you have another oil choice, those formulated for higher-mileage vehicles. Almost two-thirds of the vehicles on the road have more than 75,000 miles on the odometer. So the oil refiners have identified this as an area of customer interest, and have new oils they’re recommending for these vehicles.

When your car or light truck/SUV is somewhat older and has considerably more mileage, you may notice a few oil stains on the garage floor. It’s about this time that you need to add a quart more often than when the vehicle was new. Crankshaft seals may have hardened and lost their flexibility, so they leak (particularly at low temperatures) and may crack. The higher-mileage oils are formulated with seal conditioners that flow into the pores of the seals to restore their shape and increase their flexibility. In most cases, rubber seals are designed to swell just enough to stop leaks. But the oil refiners pick their “reswelling” ingredients carefully. Valvoline showed us the performance data of one good seal conditioner that swelled most seal materials, but actually reduced the swelling of one type that tended to swell excessively from the ingredients found in some other engine oils.

You also may have noticed some loss of performance and engine smoothness as a result of engine wear on your higher-mileage vehicle. These higher-mileage oils also have somewhat higher viscosities. (Even if the numbers on the container don’t indicate it, there’s a fairly wide range for each viscosity rating and the higher-mileage oils sit at the top of each range.) They also may have more viscosity-index improvers in them. The result? They seal piston-to-cylinder clearances better and won’t squeeze out as readily from the larger engine bearing clearances. They also may have a higher dose of antiwear additives to try to slow the wear process.

If you have an older vehicle, all of these features may mean more to you than what you might get from a full synthetic, and at a fraction the price.

Beyond that, there’s plenty more to the oil story. Read on.

Going Deeper

changing the oil

Adrian Black – Flickr CC

Resistance to thinning with increasing temperature is called viscosity index. And although a higher second number is good, the oil also has to be robust. That is, it must be able to last for thousands of miles until the next oil change. For example, oil tends to lose viscosity from shear, the sliding motion between close-fitted metal surfaces of moving parts such as bearings. So resistance to viscosity loss (shear stability) is necessary to enable the oil to maintain the lubricating film between those parts.

Unlike antifreeze, 95 percent of which is made up of one base chemical (typically ethylene glycol), petroleum-type engine oil contains a mixture of several different types of base oil, some more expensive than others. Oil companies typically pick from a selection of five groups, each of which is produced in a different way and in different viscosities. The more expensive groups are more highly processed, in some cases with methods that produce a lubricant that can be classified as a synthetic. The so-called full synthetics contain chemicals that may be derived from petroleum but they’re altered so much that they’re not considered natural oil anymore. Our custom blend contained 10 percent polyalphaolefins (PAO), the type of chemical that’s often the primary ingredient in a full synthetic.

The base oil package in any oil makes up anywhere from 70 to 95 percent of the mix; the rest is composed of additives. Does that mean an oil with just 70 percent base oils is better than one with 95 percent? No, because some of the base oils have natural characteristics or ones that derive from their processing, which reduces or eliminates the need for additives. And although some additives make important contributions to lubrication, by themselves they don’t necessarily have great lubricity.

The ingredients in an additive package differ in cost, as we said, but price is just one factor. Some work better in certain combinations of base oils, and some of the less-expensive base oils are a good choice for a blend because of the way they perform with popular additives. Bottom line: Every motor oil has a recipe. Refiners come up with a list of objectives based on the needs of their customers (the carmakers, for example) and formulate oil to meet those goals as best they can.

Now, keeping an oil from thinning as it gets hot while it takes a beating from engine operation is one thing. But it’s also important to keep oil from getting too thick. Using premium base oils for low volatility—to prevent evaporation—is one approach. Evaporation of the base oil package not only increases oil consumption, it results in thicker oil (which decreases fuel economy).

Oil Additives

Use of additives is another approach to improving and maintaining oil performance. High engine temperatures combine with moisture, combustion byproducts (including unburned gasoline), rust, corrosion, engine-wear particles, and oxygen to produce sludge and varnish. The additives not only assist oil in maintaining good lubrication, they also help minimize sludge and varnish, and any damage from their formation. Here are the categories of key additive ingredients and why they’re important:

Viscosity-index improvers: Reduce the oil’s tendency to thin with increasing temperature.

Detergents: Unlike the household type, they don’t scrub engine surfaces. They do remove some deposits, primarily solids. But their main purpose is to keep the surfaces clean by inhibiting the formation of high-temperature deposits, rust, and corrosion.

Dispersants: Disperse solid particles, keeping them in solution, so they don’t come together to form sludge, varnish, and acids. Some additives work both as detergents and dispersants.

Antiwear agents: There are times when the lubricating film breaks down, so the antiwear agents have to protect the metal surfaces. A zinc and phosphorus compound called ZDDP is a long-used favorite, along with other phosphorus (and sulphur) compounds. If you musts know, ZDDP stand for zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

Friction modifiers: These aren’t the same as antiwear agents. They reduce engine friction and, so, can improve fuel economy. Graphite, molybdenum, and other compounds are used.

Pour-point depressants: Just because the 0° F viscosity rating is low doesn’t mean the oil will flow readily at low temperatures. Oil contains wax particles that can congeal and reduce flow, so these additives are used to prevent it.

Antioxidants: With engine temperatures being pushed up for better emissions control, the antioxidants are needed to prevent oxidation (and, therefore, thickening) of oil. Some of the additives that perform other functions also serve this purpose, such as the antiwear agents.

Foam inhibitors: The crankshaft whipping through the oil in the pan causes foaming. Oil foam is not as effective a lubricant as a full-liquid stream, so the inhibitors are used to cause the foam bubbles to collapse.

Rust/corrosion inhibitors: Protect metal parts from acids and moisture.

More Is Not Better

You can’t necessarily improve an oil by putting in more additives. In fact, you can make things worse. For example, sulphur compounds have antiwear, antioxidation characteristics, but they can reduce fuel economy and affect catalytic converter operation. Too much of a particular detergent could affect the antiwear balance. Too much of a specific dispersant could affect catalyst performance and reduce fuel economy. Antiwear and friction-reducing additives also may have ingredients (such as sulphur) that could affect catalyst performance.

There’s a lot of pressure on the oil industry to reduce sulphur content in oil as well as in gasoline. But the industry’s resistance is understandable when you consider the delicate balancing act it must perform with each revolution of your car’s engine.

Don’t Forget the Filter

Oil filters are a completely different, albeit related, subject when it comes to changing your oil. Again, it’s always best to consult with your carmaker on the type of filter required. Some aftermarket filters are larger, so make sure if you use one of those that you have enough oil.

Types of Motor Oil - How To Pick The Right Engine Oil - Popular Mechanics

Posted:

Given all the motor oil options out there, choosing the right oil for your car might seem like an impossibly daunting task. While there is a mountain of info to learn about the various oil choices, the first step is honestly quite simple: Look in the manual.

Your car’s owner’s manual will list the recommended oil weight, whether that’s a standard like 10W-30 or something more unusual. Later on, we’ll explain what that weight means and how you should adjust it based on the seasons. But for now, choose an oil with the recommended weight from a brand that displays the starburst symbol that indicates the oil has been tested by the American Petroleum Institute (API). In addition, there’s a two-character service designation on the container. API’s latest service standard is “SL.” SL refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of high-temperature deposits.

Next, you need to choose the viscosity (thickness) that’s suitable for the temperatures your vehicle normally operates in (again, check your owners manual).

Those are the basics. But there’s a whole lot more to the story than that.

Understand the Labels

image
Motor oil labels.

SAE

These are the labels you’ll find on every container of reputable motor oil. The API donut on the right tells you if the oil meets the current SL service rating (C for diesel engines). It also provides the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity number and tells you if the oil has passed the Energy Conserving test. The starburst symbol on the left indicates that the oil has passed the tests listed for SL service.

Viscosity

Viscosity means a fluid’s resistance to flow. In motor oil, it’s rated at zero degrees Fahrenheit (represented by the number preceding the “W” [for winter]) and at 212 degrees (represented by the second number in the viscosity designation). Motor oil thins as it heats and thickens as it cools. So, with the right additives to help it resist thinning too much, an oil can be rated for one viscosity when cold, another when hot. The more resistant it is to thinning, the higher the second number (10W-40 versus 10W-30, for example), and that’s good. Within reason, thicker oil generally seals better and maintains a better film of lubrication between moving parts.

At the low-temperature end, oil has to be resistant to thickening so that it flows more easily to all the moving parts in your engine. Also, if the oil is too thick, the engine requires more energy to turn the crankshaft, which is partly submerged in a bath of oil. Excessive thickness can make it harder to start the engine, which reduces fuel economy. A 5W oil is typically what’s recommended for winter use. However, synthetic oils can be formulated to flow even more easily when cold, so they are able to pass tests that meet the 0W rating.

Once the engine is running, the oil heats up. The second number in the viscosity rating—the “40” in 10W-40, for example—tells you that the oil will stay thicker at high temperatures than one with a lower second number—the “30” in 10W-30, for example. What’s really important is that you use the oil viscosity your car’s owner’s manual recommends.

Why So Many Oils?

mobile 1 motor oil

Mike Mozart – Flickr CC

Look on the shelves in auto parts stores and you’ll see oils labeled for all kinds of specific purposes: high-tech engines, new cars, higher-mileage vehicles, heavy-duty/off-road SUVs. In addition, you’ll see a wide selection of viscosities. If you read your owner’s manual, you’ll know what the car manufacturer recommends for a brand-new vehicle. The manual may include a reference to Energy Conserving oils, which simply means that the oil has passed a lab test against a reference oil. It’s no guarantee of better fuel economy, but most of the leading brands have at least some viscosities that are so labeled. Let’s take a look at the different types.

How to Choose Between Synthetic and Conventional Motor Oil

Premium Conventional Oil: This is the standard new-car oil. All leading brands have one for service level SL, available in several viscosities. The carmakers usually specify a 5W-20 or 5W-30 oil, particularly for lower temperatures, with a 10W-30 oil as optional, particularly for higher ambient temperatures. These three ratings cover just about every light-duty vehicle on the road. Even more important, though, is changing the oil and filter regularly. A 4000 miles/four months interval is good practice. The absolute minimum is twice a year. If your car has an electronic oil-change indicator on the instrument cluster, don’t exceed its warning.

Full Synthetic Oil: The oils made for high-tech engines, whether in a Chevy Corvette or Mercedes-Benz, are full of synthetics. If these oils pass stringent special tests (indicated by their labeling), it means they have superior, longer-lasting performance in all the critical areas, from viscosity index to protection against deposits. They flow better at low temperatures and maintain peak lubricity at high temperatures. So why shouldn’t everyone use them? Answer: These oils are expensive and not every engine needs them. In fact, there may be some features that your car’s engine needs that the synthetics don’t have. Again, follow your owner’s manual.

Synthetic Blend Oil: These have a dose of synthetic oil mixed with organic oil, and overall are formulated to provide protection for somewhat heavier loads and high temperatures. This generally means they’re less volatile, so they evaporate far less, which reduces oil loss (and increases fuel economy). They’re popular with drivers of pickups/SUVs who want the high-load protection. And they’re a lot less expensive than full synthetics, maybe just pennies more than a premium conventional oil.

Higher-Mileage Oil: Today’s vehicles last longer, and if you like the idea of paying off the car and running the mileage well into six figures, you have another oil choice, those formulated for higher-mileage vehicles. Almost two-thirds of the vehicles on the road have more than 75,000 miles on the odometer. So the oil refiners have identified this as an area of customer interest, and have new oils they’re recommending for these vehicles.

When your car or light truck/SUV is somewhat older and has considerably more mileage, you may notice a few oil stains on the garage floor. It’s about this time that you need to add a quart more often than when the vehicle was new. Crankshaft seals may have hardened and lost their flexibility, so they leak (particularly at low temperatures) and may crack. The higher-mileage oils are formulated with seal conditioners that flow into the pores of the seals to restore their shape and increase their flexibility. In most cases, rubber seals are designed to swell just enough to stop leaks. But the oil refiners pick their “reswelling” ingredients carefully. Valvoline showed us the performance data of one good seal conditioner that swelled most seal materials, but actually reduced the swelling of one type that tended to swell excessively from the ingredients found in some other engine oils.

You also may have noticed some loss of performance and engine smoothness as a result of engine wear on your higher-mileage vehicle. These higher-mileage oils also have somewhat higher viscosities. (Even if the numbers on the container don’t indicate it, there’s a fairly wide range for each viscosity rating and the higher-mileage oils sit at the top of each range.) They also may have more viscosity-index improvers in them. The result? They seal piston-to-cylinder clearances better and won’t squeeze out as readily from the larger engine bearing clearances. They also may have a higher dose of antiwear additives to try to slow the wear process.

If you have an older vehicle, all of these features may mean more to you than what you might get from a full synthetic, and at a fraction the price.

Beyond that, there’s plenty more to the oil story. Read on.

Going Deeper

changing the oil

Adrian Black – Flickr CC

Resistance to thinning with increasing temperature is called viscosity index. And although a higher second number is good, the oil also has to be robust. That is, it must be able to last for thousands of miles until the next oil change. For example, oil tends to lose viscosity from shear, the sliding motion between close-fitted metal surfaces of moving parts such as bearings. So resistance to viscosity loss (shear stability) is necessary to enable the oil to maintain the lubricating film between those parts.

Unlike antifreeze, 95 percent of which is made up of one base chemical (typically ethylene glycol), petroleum-type engine oil contains a mixture of several different types of base oil, some more expensive than others. Oil companies typically pick from a selection of five groups, each of which is produced in a different way and in different viscosities. The more expensive groups are more highly processed, in some cases with methods that produce a lubricant that can be classified as a synthetic. The so-called full synthetics contain chemicals that may be derived from petroleum but they’re altered so much that they’re not considered natural oil anymore. Our custom blend contained 10 percent polyalphaolefins (PAO), the type of chemical that’s often the primary ingredient in a full synthetic.

The base oil package in any oil makes up anywhere from 70 to 95 percent of the mix; the rest is composed of additives. Does that mean an oil with just 70 percent base oils is better than one with 95 percent? No, because some of the base oils have natural characteristics or ones that derive from their processing, which reduces or eliminates the need for additives. And although some additives make important contributions to lubrication, by themselves they don’t necessarily have great lubricity.

The ingredients in an additive package differ in cost, as we said, but price is just one factor. Some work better in certain combinations of base oils, and some of the less-expensive base oils are a good choice for a blend because of the way they perform with popular additives. Bottom line: Every motor oil has a recipe. Refiners come up with a list of objectives based on the needs of their customers (the carmakers, for example) and formulate oil to meet those goals as best they can.

Now, keeping an oil from thinning as it gets hot while it takes a beating from engine operation is one thing. But it’s also important to keep oil from getting too thick. Using premium base oils for low volatility—to prevent evaporation—is one approach. Evaporation of the base oil package not only increases oil consumption, it results in thicker oil (which decreases fuel economy).

Oil Additives

Use of additives is another approach to improving and maintaining oil performance. High engine temperatures combine with moisture, combustion byproducts (including unburned gasoline), rust, corrosion, engine-wear particles, and oxygen to produce sludge and varnish. The additives not only assist oil in maintaining good lubrication, they also help minimize sludge and varnish, and any damage from their formation. Here are the categories of key additive ingredients and why they’re important:

Viscosity-index improvers: Reduce the oil’s tendency to thin with increasing temperature.

Detergents: Unlike the household type, they don’t scrub engine surfaces. They do remove some deposits, primarily solids. But their main purpose is to keep the surfaces clean by inhibiting the formation of high-temperature deposits, rust, and corrosion.

Dispersants: Disperse solid particles, keeping them in solution, so they don’t come together to form sludge, varnish, and acids. Some additives work both as detergents and dispersants.

Antiwear agents: There are times when the lubricating film breaks down, so the antiwear agents have to protect the metal surfaces. A zinc and phosphorus compound called ZDDP is a long-used favorite, along with other phosphorus (and sulphur) compounds. If you musts know, ZDDP stand for zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

Friction modifiers: These aren’t the same as antiwear agents. They reduce engine friction and, so, can improve fuel economy. Graphite, molybdenum, and other compounds are used.

Pour-point depressants: Just because the 0° F viscosity rating is low doesn’t mean the oil will flow readily at low temperatures. Oil contains wax particles that can congeal and reduce flow, so these additives are used to prevent it.

Antioxidants: With engine temperatures being pushed up for better emissions control, the antioxidants are needed to prevent oxidation (and, therefore, thickening) of oil. Some of the additives that perform other functions also serve this purpose, such as the antiwear agents.

Foam inhibitors: The crankshaft whipping through the oil in the pan causes foaming. Oil foam is not as effective a lubricant as a full-liquid stream, so the inhibitors are used to cause the foam bubbles to collapse.

Rust/corrosion inhibitors: Protect metal parts from acids and moisture.

More Is Not Better

You can’t necessarily improve an oil by putting in more additives. In fact, you can make things worse. For example, sulphur compounds have antiwear, antioxidation characteristics, but they can reduce fuel economy and affect catalytic converter operation. Too much of a particular detergent could affect the antiwear balance. Too much of a specific dispersant could affect catalyst performance and reduce fuel economy. Antiwear and friction-reducing additives also may have ingredients (such as sulphur) that could affect catalyst performance.

There’s a lot of pressure on the oil industry to reduce sulphur content in oil as well as in gasoline. But the industry’s resistance is understandable when you consider the delicate balancing act it must perform with each revolution of your car’s engine.

Don’t Forget the Filter

Oil filters are a completely different, albeit related, subject when it comes to changing your oil. Again, it’s always best to consult with your carmaker on the type of filter required. Some aftermarket filters are larger, so make sure if you use one of those that you have enough oil.

Weekly Edition | Boletin Semanal


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